Glaucoma is a chronic and progressive disease ( optic neuropathy ) , which damages the optic nerve and lead to disturbances in the visual field , damage to visual acuity , even to blindness . Glaucoma occurs when the pressure of the aqueous humor ( fluid that is located inside the eye ) increased to more than 22 mmHg. Fortunately , it can be detected early , which allows it to control , in most cases, the eye pressure under control , and stop further loss of vision .
There are two main types of glaucoma and they are:
Primary and secondary glaucoma (secondary occurs as consequence of other diseases to the eye ) .
Primary glaucoma can be:
1.Simplex Glaucoma ( Glaucoma simplex) or open chamber angle glaucoma , which is the most common
2.Angular glaucoma ( Glaucoma angular ) or chamber angle closure glaucoma
Studies have shown that early detection and treatment of glaucoma , before the disease leads to vision impairment ,is the best way for its control . If you belong to one of the groups with an increased risk of infection , ophthalmic examination should perform at least twice a year.
Risk factors for glaucoma include:
Elevated intraocular pressure ( only known factor that may be affected)
Age ( more common in people older than 45 years )
Family history and inheritance
Myopia ( nearsightedness)
Retinal diseases (especially central retinal vein occlusion )
Systemic diseases (especially diabetes, migraines and poor circulation)
Symptoms of glaucoma simplex
Glaucoma does not cause symptoms until they have been significant loss of visual field , so the early diagnosis is of great importance . Damage develops gradually in both eyes (but progressing asymmetric and unequal ) , and only late in the course of disease affects central vision . Disease first first losing peripheral vision - objects in front you see sharply , but objects can not be seen from the side ( the impression of looking through a tunnel ) .Advanced and untreated glaucoma eventually leads to complete blindness .
In most patients who have angular glaucoma, changes develop slow as in simplex glaucoma. In some patients, can lead to a sudden jump in intraocular pressure following blurred vision (appearance of colored haloes around lights , eye redness, severe pain in the eye and headache. This condition is called acute glaucoma attack and requires immediate help of ophthalmologists because it can very quickly lead to visual impairment and blindness too !
The main principle of treatment of glaucoma is the lowering of intraocular pressure. Treatment can be conservative , most commonly with eye drops . If using drugs can not reach the target pressure , apply additional laser intervention: NdYAG laser iridotomy and SLT (selective laser trabeculoplasty) or surgical methods: HFDS, TTR or install shunts.
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